Resources for Colleges and Universities
Student Safety, Justice, and Support: Policy guidelines for California campuses addressing sexual assault, dating/domestic violence and stalking by the California Coalition Against Sexual Assault (2015). You will be able to download the document once you complete the survey. “The Policy Guidelines for California Campuses Addressing Sexual Assault, Dating/Domestic Violence and Stalking (hereinafter “Guidelines”) is a document and resource for colleges looking to comply with California law and improve their response to and prevention of sexual assault and other crimes. California Coalition Against Sexual Assault (CALCASA), in conversations among California prosecutors, rape crisis centers (RCC)1, college/university administrators, and student activists, has developed these Guidelines to provide practical guidance and examples of the best practices at work on different campuses across the country.”
Beyond Title IX: Guidelines for Preventing and Responding to Gender-based Violence in Higher Education by Ann Fleck-Henderson with contributions from Peggy Costello, Maya Raghu, Jennifer Solidum Rose and Diane Rosenfeld for Futures Without Violence and the Avon Foundation (2012). Futures without Violence and the Avon Foundation brought together a National Campus Advisory board to provide guidance on the new guidelines set forth around Title IX in responding to sexual assaults on college campuses. This report, which comes from this gathering of experts, seeks to move the efforts of higher education institutions past complying with the guidelines to creating a culture of gender-based violence prevention and response.
Guidance for Creating College and University Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, and Sexual Violence Prevention and Intervention Programs and Policies for Students, by the North Carolina Coalition Against Domestic Violence (2015). “This document, the Guidance, is one of two documents prepared by the North Carolina Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCCADV) and serves as a general guide for colleges and universities as they develop their domestic violence, dating violence, stalking, and sexual violence policies. The Template is the second document, a supplement to the Guidance, and includes a recommended layout and language for the policy itself. Institutions are at varying stages of their policy development. These documents are comprehensive and therefore will serve institutions differently. Institutions that are at the beginning stages may be more likely to adopt the entire template, whereas institutions that have recently written or updated their policies may be more likely to view these documents as additional guidance and/or suggestions.”
Student Summit on Sexual Assault: Report and recommendations, by the California Coalition Against Sexual Assault (2014). You will be able to download the document once you complete the survey. Discussion of a convening of college and university students from across California and their recommendations for prevention and response on campus.
Addressing Sexual Assault and Interpersonal Violence: Athletics’ Role in Support of Healthy and Safe Campuses. Published by the NCAA, this handbook illustrates the responsibility athletics departments have in collaborating with other campus leaders to fight sexual assault and interpersonal violence. The handbook was created to assist athletics departments in being valued campus partners in an effort to change the culture surrounding this issue.
In 2012, Westat, the research firm responsible for maintaining the U.S. Department of Education’s (ED) Clery Act data collection portal and for publishing ED’s Handbook for Campus Safety and Security Reporting, distributed a broadcast e-mail to all institutional Clery Act reporting contacts clarifying a number of Clery Act-related reporting requirements.
“The American College Health Association developed the Shifting the Paradigm: Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence toolkit to provide facts, ideas, strategies, conversation starters, and resources to everyone on campus who cares about the prevention of sexual violence. While there is a rich volume of tools, knowledge, and resources for intervention after sexual violence, the emphasis of this toolkit is to encourage prevention activities that take place before sexual violence has occurred and which create social change and shift the norms regarding sexual violence.” – From the CDC
2011 College Dating Violence and Abuse Poll
This survey with 508 college students including 330 women and 178 men reveals that a significant number of college women (43%) are victims of dating violence. The results also show that college students generally do not know how to help their friends (58%), or themselves (38%), get out of abusive relationships.
Preventing Sexual Aggression Among College Men:
This 17 minute PreventConnect podcast discusses the article, “Preventing Sexual Aggression among College Men: An Evaluation of a Social Norms and Bystander Intervention Program,” which appears in the June 2011 edition of the journal, Violence Against Women.
A Case Study: Creating a Campus Violence Prevention Program:
This recorded session reviews the principles and process of beginning a violence prevention program on a college or university campus. It includes a presentation on efforts to build a prevention effort from the ground up on the campus of the University of Kentucky through the Green Dot Program.
Improving Campus Sexual Assault Prevention: A Best Practice Guide for Administrative Leadership:
This guide from EverFi Inc., provides an overview of the current state of sexual assault on campus, its impact on survivors and the schools they attend and how institutions of higher education are currently responding. The guide includes clear, evidence-based guidelines for a comprehensive approach to prevention on campus.
- “Clarifying Consent: Primary Prevention of Sexual Assault on a College Campus” by Borges, Banyard, Moynihan 2008
- “Using Social Self-Identification in Social Marketing Materials Aimed at Reducing Violence Against Women on Campus” by Potter, Moynihan, Stapleton 2010
- “Community Responsibility for Preventing Sexual Violence: A Pilot Study with Campus Greeks and Intercollegiate Athletes” by Moynihan and Banyard 2008
- “College Women’s Rape Awareness and Use of Commonly Advocated Risk Reduction Strategies” by Hertzog, Yielding 2009
- “Preventing Sexual Aggression among College Men: An Evaluation of a Social Norms and Bystander Intervention Program” by Gidycz, Orchowski, Berkowitz 2011
- Note: Additional college prevention programs highlighted in Programs that Promote Bystander Intervention**
One in Four:
One in Four, Inc is a 501 (c) 3 non-profit organization dedicated to the prevention of rape by the thoughtful application of theory and research to rape prevention programming. Our presentation and prevention strategies are based in statistical research and have been shown to increase likelihood of bystander intervention in a situation where rape or sexual assault may occur. In addition, men who have participated in “The Men’s Program” have been shown to commit less sexual assault during an academic year than those who have not. Women who see “The Women’s Program” experience increases in bystander willingness and efficacy to intervene. One in Four strives to provide presentations, trainings, and technical assistance to men and women, with a focus on single sex programming targeted toward colleges, high schools, the military and local community organizations. In addition, One in Four serves as an umbrella organization and support system for single sex sexual assault peer education groups who call themselves “One in Four” chapters.
The Consensual Project:
The Consensual Project partners with schools and universities to bring students a fresh understanding of consent. The innovative curriculum, workshops, and website empower young people to incorporate consent into their daily lives. The Consensual Project is committed to helping students connect through consent.
Students Active for Ending Rape (SAFER):
Started by Columbia University students in 2000, Students Active for Ending Rape (SAFER) is the only organization that fights sexual violence and rape culture by empowering student-led campaigns to reform college sexual assault policies.
Theater Projects: Examples include Rutgers University Scream Theatre, University of Colorado at Boulder’s The Interactive Theater troupe and University of Texas at Austin’s Voices Against Violence Peer Theatre Group.
No Zebras: No Excuses (at Central Michigan University)
Where do you stand?: : This guide describes “Where Do You Stand?,” a comprehensive bystander intervention campaign for college men. The guide teaches how to use the campaign to positively change the cultural dynamics of a campus culture.
Online orientation programs
Online orientation programs can serve as one part of a comprehensive prevention approach. The following programs are offered at a range of price levels and are supported by a range of amounts and quality of empirical evidence.
Selecting an Online Prevention Module
This toolkit is designed to help campuses consider and potentially select an online module to expand comprehensive and strategic gender-based violence prevention plans on campus.
Questions to consider when deciding about online orientation programs:
- What are your overall sexual violence prevention goals? How will an online orientation fit into your broader, more comprehensive prevention plan?
- How can an online orientation help meet some of those goals?
- Which goals cannot be met with an online orientation?
- How will it complement related campus policies, available sexual violence response services, social marketing campaigns, etc.?
- What are the specific goals and objectives you hope to accomplish through an online orientation? Does the content of the orientation support these goals and objectives? Do the desired changes in knowledge, attitude, beliefs, behavioral intent and/or behaviors contribute to changes in underlying norms or associated risk and protective factors that will shift actual behaviors?
- Does it contribute to a comprehensive approach? Is it one element of a comprehensive approach? What are the other prevention components that make up the comprehensive approach on campus?
- Online orientation programs are products. How have certain products been marketed to you? How do the program’s strengths and limitations match up to the marketing?
- Are there published evaluations of the program’s effectiveness?
- Are they peer-reviewed and/or independently conducted?
- If the program has demonstrated effectiveness in some outcomes, what are those outcomes? For which outcomes was the program not effective? Did it change behaviors or behavioral intentions? Or just knowledge and attitudes? How long after the program was delivered were the outcomes measured? The longer-lasting the effects, the better.
- Were there any negative, unintended consequences of the program?
- Does the program adhere to the principles of effective prevention?
- For how long does the program engage students? One-hour in-person presentations are not effective in creating lasting change, and short online programs are likely to have the same limitations.
- Does the messaging in the content align with your philosophies and with your other messaging about sexual violence? For example, does the content challenge or reinforce gender stereotypes? Is it informed by feminist theory and does it address intersecting oppressions? Does it refrain from victim blaming?
- Is it community-specific and developed in collaboration with students and other stakeholders from that school context? Does it address the diversity of students andcampuses? Is it respectful of the uniqueness of any particular college community, including sub-cultures within that community? Does it include participatory processes to design, implement and evaluate the SVP program?
- Is the content attentive to the needs of survivors? Does it draw on the experience of a variety of survivors? Is it in alignment with available survivor services and response systems? Does it coordinate with the local rape crisis center and other community-based organizations to ensure compatibility with the larger community context?
- Does it include an understanding of the individual and community trauma associated with sexual violence?
- Does it take into account the range of sexual violence experiences, not just sexual violence occurring at campus or fraternity parties or stranger rapes, but also how to prevent sexual violence among peers in different circumstances and violence perpetrated by authority figures, family members and other acquaintances?
- Does the program draw on evidence to inform decision-making about the program?
If it claims to be evidence-informed, does it clearly communicate which evidence it’s based on? Does it help to generate evidence about what works and doesn’t work in a particular college context?
- Can it be implemented? Can it be implemented well? Are there adequate resources to adapt and implement it in diverse communities? Can it be tailored to meet the specific needs of the college and its students, including sub-cultures and languages within the campus community?
College or Company
Program Primary Focus
Feminist theory/ rape culture
Healthy relationships/ healthy campus
360 Stay Safe
360 Stay Safe, LLC
Agent of Change
We End Violence
Varies, average $4.50/student
Game format using avatars.
Wall, A. (2007). Evaluating a health education website: The case of AlcoholEdu. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 44(4), 692-714.
Campus SaVE and Title IX training
Sexual assault prevention and bystander are modules that can be included or not.
University of Illinois – Chicago
Green Dot, Student Success
Content areas are modules that can be included or not. Two different versions for university/4-year colleges and for community colleges.
University of Montana
Salazar, L.F., Vivolo-Kantor, A., Hardin, J., & Berkowitz, A. (2014). Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(9).
Evaluated using a randomized controlled trial. A similar program targeting female students is in development.
Think About It
Campus Outreach Services
Fee per user, packages start at $1000
University of Wisconsin
A • B • C
- Binghamton University
- Boston College
- Bowling Green State University
- Centenary College
- Central Michigan University
- College of New Jersey, The
- College of William and Mary
- Colorado State University
D • E • F
G • H • I
J • K • L
M • N • O
- Michigan State University
- Montana State University, Northern
- Montclair State University
- Nicholls State University
- North Orange County Community College
- Ohio State University
- Ohio University
- Oregon State University
P • Q • R
S • T
- St. Lawrence University
- Sarah Lawrence College
- State University of New York at Buffalo
- State University of New York at Fredonia
- State University of New York at Purchase
- Tougaloo College
- Tufts University Women’s Center
U • V
- University of Alabama
- University of California, Berkeley
- University of California, Davis
- University of California, Los Angeles
- University of California, San Diego
- University of California, Santa Barbara
- University of Colorado at Boulder
- University of Connecticut
- University of Hawaii
- University of Idaho
- University of Illinois, Chicago
- University of Kentucky
- University of Louisville
- University of Maine
- University of Massachusetts
- University of Michigan
- University of Minnesota
- University of New Hampshire
- University of Northern Iowa
- University of Oklahoma
- University of South Carolina
- University of South Florida
- University of Southern California
- University of Tennessee
- University of Texas, Austin
- University of Vermont
- University of Wisconsin, Madison
- University of Wisconsin, Stout
- Virginia Tech University
W • X
Y • Z
- Ahrens, C. E., Rich, M. D., & Ullman, J. B. (2011). Rehearsing for real life: The impact of the InterACT sexual assault prevention program on self-reported likelihood of engaging in bystander interventions. Violence Against Women, 17(6), 760-776. doi:10.1177/1077801211410212
- Amar, A. F., Sutherland, M., & Kesler, E. (2012). Evaluation of a bystander education program. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33(12), 851-857. doi:10.3109/01612840.2012.709915
- Amar, A. F., Strout, T. D., Simpson, S., Cardiello, M., & Beckford, S. (2014). Administrators’ perceptions of college campus protocols, response, and student prevention efforts for sexual assault. Violence and Victims, 29(4), 579-593. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-12-00154
- Anderson, L. A., & Whiston, S. C. (2005). Sexual assault education programs: A meta-analytic examination of their effectiveness. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29(4), 374-388. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2005.00237.x
- Banyard, V. L. (2011). Who will help prevent sexual violence: Creating an ecological model of bystander intervention. Psychology of Violence, 1(3), 216-229. doi:10.1037/a0023739
- Banyard, V. L., & Moynihan, M. M. (2011). Variation in bystander behavior related to sexual and intimate partner violence prevention: Correlates in a sample of college students. Psychology of Violence, 1(4), 287-301. doi:10.1037/a0023544
- Barone, R. P., Wolgemuth, J. R., & Linder, C. (2007). Preventing sexual assault through engaging college men. Journal of College Student Development, 48(5), 585-594. doi:10.1353/csd.2007.0045
- Beres, M. A. (2007). ‘Spontaneous’ sexual consent: An analysis of sexual consent literature. Feminism & Psychology, 17(1), 93-108. doi:10.1177/0959353507072914
- Black, K. A., & Gold, D. J. (2008). Gender differences and socioeconomic status biases in judgments about blame in date rape scenarios. Violence & Victims, 23(1), 115-128. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=31131100&site=ehost-live
- Black, K. A., & McCloskey, K. A. (2013). Predicting date rape perceptions: The effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance. Violence Against Women, 19(8), 949-967. doi:10.1177/1077801213499244
- Bohner, G., Jarvis, C. I., Eyssel, F., & Siebler, F. (2005). The causal impact of rape myth acceptance on men’s rape proclivity: Comparing sexually coercive and noncoercive men. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35(6), 819-828. doi:10.1002/ejsp.284
- Bohner, G., Pina, A., Tendayi Viki, G., & Siebler, F. (2010). Using social norms to reduce men’s rape proclivity: Perceived rape myth acceptance of out-groups may be more influential than that of in-groups. Psychology, Crime & Law, 16(8), 671-693. doi:10.1080/1068316X.2010.492349
- Bohner, G., Siebler, F., & Schmelcher, J. (2006). Social norms and the likelihood of raping: Perceived rape myth acceptance of others affects men’s rape proclivity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(3), 286-297. doi:10.1177/0146167205280912
- Borges, A. M., Banyard, V. L., & Moynihan, M. M. (2008). Clarifying consent: Primary prevention of sexual assault on a college campus. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 36(1), 75-88. doi:10.1080/10852350802022324
- Bradley, A. R., Yeater, E. A., & O’Donohue, W. (2009). An evaluation of a mixed-gender sexual assault prevention program. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 30(6), 697-715. doi:10.1007/s10935-009-0198-4
- Brecklin, L. R., & Ullman, S. E. (2005). Self-defense or assertiveness training and women’s responses to sexual attacks. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(6), 738-762. doi:10.117710886260504272894
- Brooks, O. (2011). ‘Guys! stop doing it!’: Young women’s adoption and rejection of safety advice when socializing in bars, pubs and clubs. British Journal of Criminology, 51(4), 635-651. doi:10.1093/bjc/azr011
- BROSI, M. W., FOUBERT, J. D., BANNON, R. S., & YANDELL, G. (2011). Effects of sorority members’ pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 6(2), 26-35. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=89964556&site=ehost-live
- Brown, A. L., & Messman-Moore, T. (2010). Personal and perceived peer attitudes supporting sexual aggression as predictors of male college students’ willingness to intervene against sexual aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(3), 503-517. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=47934609&site=ehost-live
- Burn, S. (2009). A situational model of sexual assault prevention through bystander intervention. Sex Roles, 60(11), 779-792. doi:10.1007/s11199-008-9581-5
- Carey, L. A. (2011). The men’s and women’s programs: Ending rape through peer education by Foubert, J. Social Work with Groups, 34(3), 357-358. doi:10.1080/01609513.2011.574250
- Carmody, M., & Ovenden, G. (2013). Putting ethical sex into practice: Sexual negotiation, gender and citizenship in the lives of young women and men. Journal of Youth Studies, 16(6), 792-807. doi:10.1080/13676261.2013.763916
- CASEY, E. A., & LINDHORST, T. P. (2009). TOWARD A MULTI-LEVEL, ECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE PRIMARY PREVENTION OF SEXUAL ASSAULT: Prevention in peer and community contexts. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 10(2), 91-114. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=40102261&site=ehost-live
- Cassel, A. (2012). Are you the problem, or the solution? changing male attitudes and behaviors regarding sexual assault. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 17(2), 50-58. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=85696152&site=ehost-live
- Chapleau, K. M., Oswald, D. L., & Russell, B. L. (2007). How ambivalent sexism toward women and men supports rape myth acceptance. Sex Roles, 57(1-2), 131-136. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9196-2
- Chapleau, K. M., Oswald, D. L., & Russell, B. L. (2008). Male rape myths: The role of gender, violence, and sexism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(5), 600-615. doi:10.1177/0886260507313529
- Chapleau, K., & Oswald, D. (2013). Status, threat, and stereotypes: Understanding the function of rape myth acceptance. Social Justice Research, 26(1), 18-41. doi:10.1007/s11211-013-0177-z
- Christensen, M. C. (2013). Using feminist leadership to build a performance-based, peer education program. Qualitative Social Work, 12(3), 254-269. doi:10.1177/1473325011429022
- Coker, A. L., Cook-Craig, P., Williams, C. M., Fisher, B. S., Clear, E. R., Garcia, L. S., & Hegge, L. M. (2011). Evaluation of Green Dot: An active bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence on college campuses. Violence Against Women, 17(6), 777-796. doi:10.1177/1077801211410264
- Coker, A. L., Fisher, B. S., Bush, H. M., Swan, S. C., Williams, C. M., Clear, E. R., & DeGue, S. Evaluation of Green Dot bystander intervention to reduce interpersonal violence among college students across three campuses. Violence Against Women. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/1077801214545284
- Connor, J., Cousins, K., Samaranayaka, A., & Kypri, K. (2014). Situational and contextual factors that increase the risk of harm when students drink: Case-control and case-crossover investigation. Drug and Alcohol Review, 33, 401-411. doi:10.1111/dar.12172
- Daigle, L. E., Fisher, B. S., & Stewart, M. (2009). The effectiveness of sexual victimization prevention among college students: A summary of “What works”. Victims & Offenders, 4(4), 398-404. doi:10.1080/15564880903227529
- Davies, M., Gilston, J., & Rogers, P. (2012). Examining the relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, victim blame, homophobia, gender roles, and ambivalent sexism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(14), 2807-2823. doi:10.1177/0886260512438281
- Edwards, K. M., Turchik, J. A., Dardis, C. M., Reynolds, N., & Gidycz, C. A. (2011). Rape myths: History, individual and institutional-level presence, and implications for change. Sex Roles, 65(11-12), 761-773. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9943-2
- Exner, D., & Cummings, N. (2011). Implications for sexual assault prevention: College students as prosocial bystanders. Journal of American College Health, 59(7), 655-657. doi:10.1080/07448481.2010.515633
- Fisher, B. S., Daigle, L. E., & Cullen, F. T. (2008). Rape against women: What can research offer to guide the development of prevention programs and risk reduction interventions? Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(2), 163-177. doi:10.1177/1043986208315482
- Foubert, J. D. (2011). Answering the questions of rape prevention research: A response to tharp et al. (2011). Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(16), 3393-3402. doi:10.1177/0886260511416480
- Foubert, J. D. (2013). Integrating religiosity and pornography use into the prediction of bystander efficacy and willingness to prevent sexual assault. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 41(3), 242-251. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=90588241&site=ehost-live
- Foubert, J. D., Brosi, M. W., & Bannon, R. S. (2011). Pornography viewing among fraternity men: Effects on bystander intervention, rape myth acceptance and behavioral intent to commit sexual assault. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 18(4), 212-231. doi:10.1080/10720162.2011.625552
- Foubert, J. D., & Cremedy, B. J. (2007). Reactions of men of color to a commonly used rape prevention program: Attitude and predicted behavior changes. Sex Roles, 57(1-2), 137-144. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9216-2
- Foubert, J. D., Godin, E. E., & Tatum, J. L. (2010). In their own words: Sophomore college men describe attitude and behavior changes resulting from a rape prevention program 2 years after their participation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(12), 2237-2257. doi:10.1177/0886260509354881
- Foubert, J. D., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Brasfield, H., & Hill, B. (2010). Effects of a rape awareness program on college women: Increasing bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(7), 813-827. doi:10.1002/jcop.20397
- Foubert, J. D., & Newberry, J. T. (2006). Effects of two versions of an empathy-based rape prevention program on fraternity men’s survivor empathy, attitudes, and behavioral intent to commit rape or sexual assault. Journal of College Student Development, 47(2), 133-148. doi:10.1353/csd.2006.0016
- Foubert, J. D., & Perry, B. C. (2007). Creating lasting attitude and behavior change in fraternity members and male student athletes: The qualitative impact of an empathy-based rape prevention program. Violence Against Women, 13(1), 70-86. doi:10.1177/1077801206295125
- Fox, K. A., & Cook, C. L. (2011). Is knowledge power? the effects of a victimology course on victim blaming. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(17), 3407-3427. doi:10.1177/0886260511403752
- Garcia, C. M., Lechner, K. E., Frerich, E. A., Lust, K. A., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2012). Preventing sexual violence instead of just responding to it: Students’ perceptions of sexual violence resources on campus. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 8(2), 61-71. doi:10.1111/j.1939-3938.2011.01130.x
- Garrity, S. E. (2011). Sexual assault prevention programs for college-aged men: A critical evaluation. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 7(1), 40-48. doi:10.1111/j.1939-3938.2010.01094.x
- Gidycz, C. A., Rich, C. L., Orchowski, L., King, C., & Miller, A. K. (2006). The evaluation of a sexual assault self-defense and risk-reduction program for college women: A prospective study. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30(2), 173-186. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00280.x
- Griffith, J. D., Hart, C. L., & Brickel, M. (2010). Using vignettes to change knowledge and attitudes about rape. College Student Journal, 44(2), 515-527. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=51456656&site=ehost-live
- Hertzog, J., & Yeilding, R. (2009). College women’s rape awareness and use of commonly advocated risk reduction strategies. College Student Journal, 43(1), 59-73. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2009-02694-008&site=ehost-live
- Hollander, J. A. (2014). Does self-defense training prevent sexual violence against women? Violence Against Women, 20(3), 252-269. doi:10.1177/11077801214526046
- Holz, K. B., & DiLalla, D. L. (2007). Men’s fear of unintentional rape: Measure development and psychometric evaluation. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(4), 201-214. doi:10.1037/1524-922.214.171.124
- Hossain, M. B., Memiah, P., Adeyinka, A. (2014). Are female college students who are diagnosed with depression at greater risk of experiencing sexual violence on college campus? Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 25, 1341-1359.
- Hust, S. J. T., Marett, E. G., Lei, M., Chang, H., Ren, C., McNab, A. L., & Adams, P. M. (2013). Health promotion messages in entertainment media: Crime drama viewership and intentions to intervene in a sexual assault situation. Journal of Health Communication, 18(1), 105-123. doi:10.1080/10810730.2012.688241
- Joseph, J. S., Gray, M. J., & Mayer, J. (2013). Addressing sexual assault within social systems: System justification as a barrier to college prevention efforts. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 22(5), 493-509. doi:10.1080/10926771.2013.785460
- Katz, J., Olin, R., Herman, C., & DuBois, M. (2013). Spotting the signs: First-year college students’ responses to bystander-themed rape prevention posters. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(4), 523-529. doi:10.1002/jcop.21552
- Kingree, J. B. & Thompson, M. (2014). A comparison of risk factors for alcohol-involved and alcohol-uninvolved sexual aggression perpetration. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/086260514540806
- Koelsch, L. E., Brown, A. L., & Boisen, L. (2012). Bystander perceptions: Implications for university sexual assault prevention programs.27(4), 563-579. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.27.4.563
- Kress, V. E., Shepherd, J. B., Anderson, R. I., Petuch, A. J., Nolan, J. M., & Thiemeke, D. (2006). Evaluation of the impact of a coeducational sexual assault prevention program on college students’ rape myth attitudes. Journal of College Counseling, 9(2), 148-157. doi:10.1002/j.2161-1882.2006.tb00101.x
- Lafrance, D. E., Loe, M., & Brown, S. C. (2012). ‘Yes means yes:’ A new approach to sexual assault prevention and positive sexuality promotion. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 7(4), 445-460. doi:10.1080/15546128.2012.740960
- Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Foubert, J. D., Brasfield, H. M., Hill, B., & Shelley-Tremblay, S. (2011). The Men’s program: Does it impact college men’s self-reported bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene? Violence Against Women, 17(6), 743-759. doi:10.1177/1077801211409728
- Lanier, C. A., & Green, B. A. (2006). Principal component analysis of the college date rape attitude survey (CDRAS): An instrument for the evaluation of date rape prevention programs. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 13(2), 79-93. doi:10.1300/J146v13n02-06
- Locke, B. D., & Mahalik, J. R. (2005). Examining masculinity norms, problem drinking, and athletic involvement as predictors of sexual aggression in college men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 279-283. doi:10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.1999
- McCray, K. L. (2014). Intercollegiate athletes and sexual violence: A review of literature and recommendations for future study. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/1524838014537907
- McMahon, S. (2007). Understanding community-specific rape myths: Exploring student athlete culture. Affilia: Journal of Women & Social Work, 22(4), 357-370. doi:10.1177/0886109907306331
- McMahon, S. (2010). Rape myth beliefs and bystander attitudes among incoming college students. Journal of American College Health, 59(1), 3-11. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=52617067&site=ehost-live
- McMahon, S., & Banyard, V. L. (2012). When can I help? A conceptual framework for the prevention of sexual violence through bystander intervention. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 13(1), 3-14. doi:10.1177/1524838011426015
- McMahon, S., & Dick, A. (2011). “Being in a room with like-minded men”: An exploratory study of men’s participation in a bystander intervention program to prevent intimate partner violence. Journal of Men’s Studies, 19(1), 3-18. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=58771394&site=ehost-live
- McMahon, S., & Farmer, G. L. (2009). The bystander approach: Strengths-based sexual assault prevention with at-risk groups. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(8), 1042-1065. doi:10.1080/10911350902990304
- McMahon, S., & Farmer, G. L. (2011). An updated measure for assessing subtle rape myths. Social Work Research, 35(2), 71-81. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=62583618&site=ehost-live
- McMahon, S., Postmus, J. L., Warrener, C., & Koenick, R. A. (2014). Utilizing peer education theater for the primary prevention of sexual violence on college campuses. Journal of College Student Development, 55(1), 78-85.
- Milhausen, R. R., Mcbride, K. R., & Jun, M. K. (2006). Evaluating a peer-led, theatrical sexual assault prevention program: How do we measure success? College Student Journal, 40(2), 316-328. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=21375555&site=ehost-live
- Morrison, K. (2005). Motivating women and men to take protective action against rape: Examining direct and indirect persuasive fear appeals. Health Communication, 18(3), 237-256. doi:10.1207/s15327027hc1803_3
- Mouilso, E. R., Fischer, S., & Calhoun, K. S. (2012). A prospective study of sexual assault and alcohol use among first-year college women. Violence and Victims, 27(1), 78-94. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.27.1.78
- Moynihan, M. M., Banyard, V. L., Arnold, J. S., Eckstein, R. P., & Stapleton, J. G. (2011). Sisterhood may be powerful for reducing sexual and intimate partner violence: An evaluation of the bringing in the bystander in-person program with sorority members. Violence Against Women, 17(6), 703-719. doi:10.1177/1077801211409726
- Norrell, P. M., & Bradford, S. H. (2013). Finding the beast in the beauty: Resistance as a rape prevention strategy. National Social Science Journal, 40(2), 74-87. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=86960765&site=ehost-live
- O’Byrne, R., Hansen, S., & Rapley, M. (2008). “If a girl doesn’t say ‘no’…”: Young men, rape and claims of ‘insufficient knowledge’ John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/casp.922
- O’Byrne, R., Rapley, M., & Hansen, S. (2006). `You couldn’t say “no”, could you?’: Young men’s understandings of sexual refusal. Feminism & Psychology, 16(2), 133-154. doi:10.1177/0959-353506062970
- Orchowski, L. M., Gidycz, C. A., & Raffle, H. (2008). Evaluation of a sexual assault risk reduction and self-defense program: A prospective analysis of a revised protocol. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32(2), 204-218. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.00425.x
- Palm Reed, K. M., Hines, D. A., Armstrong, J. L., & Cameron, A. Y. (2014). Experimental evaluation of a bystander prevention program for sexual assault and dating violence. Psychology of Violence. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0037557
- Parks, K. A., Hsieh, Y., Taggart, C., & Bradizza, C. M. (2014). A longitudinal analysis of drinking and victimization in college women: Is there a reciprocal relationship? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0036283
- Paul, L. A., & Gray, M. J. (2011). Sexual assault programming on college campuses: Using social psychological belief and behavior change principles to improve outcomes. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 12(2), 99-109. doi:10.1177/1524838010390710
- Piccigallo, J. R., Lilley, T. G., & Miller, S. L. (2012). “It’s cool to care about sexual violence”: Men’s experiences with sexual assault prevention. Men & Masculinities, 15(5), 507-525. doi:10.1177/1097184X12458590
- Postmus, J., McMahon, S., Warrener, C., & Macri, L. (2011). Factors that influence attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of students toward survivors of violence. Journal of Social Work Education, 47(2), 303-319. doi:10.5175/JSWE.2011.200900122
- Potter, S. J. (2012). Using a multimedia social marketing campaign to increase active bystanders on the college campus. Journal of American College Health, 60(4), 282-295.
- Potter, S. J., & Stapleton, J. G. (2011). Bringing in the target audience in bystander social marketing materials for communities: Suggestions for practitioners. Violence Against Women, 17(6), 797-812. doi:10.1177/1077801211410364
- Rich, M. D. (2010). The interACT model: Considering rape prevention from a performance activism and social justice perspective. Feminism & Psychology, 20(4), 511-528. doi:10.1177/0959353510371366
- Rich, M. D., Utley, E. A., Janke, K., & Moldoveanu, M. (2010). ‘I’d rather be doing something else:’ male resistance to rape prevention programs. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 18(3), 268-288. doi:10.3149/jms.1803.268
- Rothman, E., & Silverman, J. (2007). The effect of a college sexual assault prevention program on first-year students’ victimization rates. Journal of American College Health, 55(5), 283-290. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=24660490&site=ehost-live
- Salazar, L. F., Vivolo-Kantor, A., Hardin, J., Berkowitz, A. (2014). A web-based sexual violence bystander intervention for male college students: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(9). doi:10.2196/jmir.3426
- Senn, C. Y. (2013). Education on resistance to acquaintance sexual assault: Preliminary promise of a new program for young women in high school and university. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 45(1), 24-33. doi:10.1037/a0029915
- Senn, C. Y., Eliasziw, M., Barata, P. C., Thurston, W. E., Newby-Clark, I., Lorraine Radtke, H., & Hobden, K. L. (2013). Sexual assault resistance education for university women: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial). BMC Women’s Health, 13(1), 1-13. doi:10.1186/1472-6874-13-25
- Senn, C. Y., Gee, S. S., & Thake, J. (2011). Emancipatory sexuality education and sexual assault resistance: Does the former enhance the latter? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(1), 72-91. doi:10.1177/0361684310384101
- Simpson Beck, V., Boys, S., Rose, C., & Beck, E. (2012). Violence against women in video games: A prequel or sequel to rape myth acceptance? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(15), 3016-3031. doi:10.1177/0886260512441078
- Singh, S., Orwat, J., & Grossman, S. (2011). A protection motivation theory application to date rape education. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 16(6), 727-735. doi:10.1080/13548506.2011.579983
- Stein, J. L. (2007). Peer educators and close friends as predictors of male college students’ willingness to prevent rape. Journal of College Student Development, 48(1), 75-89. doi:10.1353/csd.2007.0008
- Stephens, K. A., & George, W. H. (2009). Rape prevention with college men: Evaluating risk status. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(6), 996-1013. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=39259832&site=ehost-live
- Swartout, K. M. (2013). The company they keep: How peer networks influence male sexual aggression. Psychology of Violence, 3(2), 157-171. doi:10.1037/a0029997
- Testa, M., & Livingston, J. A. (2009). Alcohol consumption and women’s vulnerability to sexual victimization: Can reducing women’s drinking prevent rape? Substance use & Misuse, 44(9), 1349-1376. doi:10.1080/10826080902961468
- Tharp, A. T., DeGue, S., Valle, L. A., Brookmeyer, K. A., Massetti, G. M., & Matjasko, J. L. (2013). A systematic qualitative review of risk and protective factors for sexual violence perpetration. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 14(2), 133-167. doi:10.1177/1524838012470031
- Vetten, L. (2011). III. politics and the fine art of preventing rape. Feminism & Psychology, 21(2), 268-272. doi:10.1177/0959353511399889
- Vladutiu, C. J., Martin, S. L., & Macy, R. J. (2011). College- or university-based sexual assault prevention programs: A review of program outcomes, characteristics, and recommendations. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 12(2), 67-86. doi:10.1177/1524838010390708
- Wantland, R. A. (2008). Our brotherhood and your sister: Building anti-rape community in the fraternity. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 36(1-2), 57-73. doi:10.1080/10852350802022316