Prevention Approaches & Theory
Sexual assault prevention efforts have been based on a wide range of theories and approaches . Many come from Public Health, feminist, and educational models.
- Includes information on the socio-ecological model, the spectrum of prevention, social norms theory
Research and evaluation have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of prevention programs.
The National Sexual Violence Resource Center published a report, Key Findings from A Systematic Review of Primary Prevention Strategies for Sexual Violence Perpetration, summarizing a systematic review of effectiveness of primary prevention strategies by Sarah DeGue et al. (2014). The original article by DeGue et al., A systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration, is available in full to the public.
What research tells us about preventing rape: video, ~30 minutes.
From the World Health Organization (2010), “//Violence prevention: the evidence// is a set of briefings on what works to prevent interpersonal violence (including against women and girls), and self-directed violence. By spotlighting the evidence for effectiveness, the briefings provide clear directions for how funders, policy makers and programme implementers can boost the impact of their violence prevention efforts for women and girls, men and boys. It is available in English, French and Spanish.”
Public health principles call for evidence-based programs. However, there is significant discussion about what constitutes such an evidence-base.
Links between violence and chronic disease
Bibliography of research on prevention for college and universities
Making a Case for Prevention:
Articles and resources explaining the fiscal impact of sexual violence on our communities
International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction: open (free) access journal from Iran that often prints articles related to sexually violent behavior.
The Lancet Series on Violence Against Women and Girls: This is a 2014 series of articles based on researchers’ reviews of existing reviews of studies of prevention of various kinds of violence against women and girls globally. The articles are written clearly and are accessible for broader audiences than the research community.
“Rape Prevention and Risk Reduction: Review of the Research Literature for Practitioners”,
Published in January 2009
Rape Prevention and Risk Reduction.pdf
- 312 KB
Kimberly A. Lonsway, Victoria L. Banyard, Alan D. Berkowitz, Christine A. Gidycz, Jackson T. Katz, Mary P. Koss, Paul A. Schewe, and Sarah E. Ullman, with contributions from Dorothy Edwards
Noonan 2009 Empowerment Evaluation With Programs.pdf
- 80 KB
Noonan 2009 Empowerment Evaluation With Programs.pdf
- 80 KB
Orchowski 2008 Evaluation of a SA.pdf
- 128 KB
Recommendations to Prevent Sexual Violence in Oregon: A Plan of Action
Washington State Plan
Prevention Accreditation Standards from Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs
Cost Benefit Analysis of Prevention
Transforming Communities: Technical Assistance, Training and Resource Center (TC-TAT) online manual, Making the Case for Domestic Violence Prevention Through the Lens of Cost- Benefit.
This brief research compendium provides a summary of scholarly work on sexual violence topics published in 2009. Excerpt: “In this document, we briefly describe a selection of recent findings in the published academic literature dealing with sexual violence. These selected findings covers topics related to rape and sexual assault on college campuses, men attitudes towards victims of sexual assault, and the use of an empowerment approach to working with survivors. While we have tried to include a variety of sources, this work represents a very small sample of the total amount of research related to sexual violence that has become important in recent years. We encourage anyone trying to answer specific questions about sexual violence to contact us so that we can provide resources tailored to your needs.”
In reverse chronological order.
- Research series on teen dating violence
- NIJ research: Peer groups influence on teen dating violence
- Research overview of engaging men and boys
- The role of alcohol policy in prevention
- Prevention lessons from around the world
- Revisión de investigación sobre la prevención de la violencia en el noviazgo
- New research series on global violence against women and girls
- Bullying, homophobic teasing, and sexual harassment
- How researchers adapted an evidenced based program
- Online sexual violence prevention program may show promise
- Domestic and sexual violence rates much higher among people with severe mental illness
- NSVRC releases report on key findings about sexual violence prevention strategies
- School staff’s role in preventing bullying and sexual harassment
- 2011 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) findings released
- What does your neighborhood have to do with sexual violence?
- Forcing gender roles, harming health
- Train the teachers? A study evaluating a sexual violence prevention curriculum delivered by school staff
- Serious lack of research on preventing violence against people with disabilities
- Culturally grounded prevention to create change
- Adverse Family Environment: A breeding ground for sexual offending
- New research and a rapey news cycle: Undoing toxic masculinity
- Assessing the Effects of Families for Safe Dates
- The health impact of being a bystander
- Does bullying lead to dating aggression?
- “Militarized Sexual Violence in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo”
- Barriers to screening for intimate partner violence
- The role of rape myth acceptance
- Value of sexual assault programming on college campuses
- “Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape”
- Prevention Research in Puerto Rico [in Spanish]
- Several resources: Research on bystander programs highlighted in journal
- Addressing cultural issues in prevention programming and research
- Gender variations in dating violence among Mexican adolescents
- Men’s Willingness to Support Efforts to Prevent Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault
Openly Accessible (Free) Articles
Citations listed alphabetically by year.
- Bannon, R. S., Brosi, M. W., & Foubert, J. D. (2013). Sorority women’s and fraternity men’s rape myth acceptance and bystander intervention attitudes. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 50(I), 72-87.
- Flood, M. (2013). “Current practices to preventing sexual violence and intimate partner violence.” In Critical Issues on Violence Against Women: International Perspectives and Promising Strategies, Eds Holly Johnson, Bonnie S. Fisher, and Véronique Jaquier, Routledge.
- Flood, M. (2013). “Men’s anti-violence activism and the construction of gender-equitable masculinities.” In Moving Ahead: Alternative Masculinities for a Changing World, Eds. Àngels Carabíand Jose Armengol, Palgrave.
- Flood, M. (2013). “Preventing male violence.” In Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention: Epidemiology, evidence, and policy. Eds. C. Ward and P. Donnelly. Oxford University Press.
- Flood, M. (2013). Preventing violence against women and girls. Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Foubert, J. D. & Rizzo, A. (2013). Integrating religiosity and pornography use into the prediction of bystander efficacy and willingness to prevent sexual assault. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 41(3), 242-251.
- Holmes, S. & Flood, M. (2013). Genders at Work: Exploring the role of workplace equality in preventing men’s violence against women. Sydney: White Ribbon Research Series, No. 7.
- Flood, M. & Kendrick, V. (2012). An evaluation of the LOVEBiTES and Respectful Relationships programs in a Sydney school. NAPAN & University of Wollongong.
- Foubert, J. D. & Masin, R. (2012). Effects of The Men’s Program on Bystander Intervention and Intent to Rape Among U.S. Army Soldiers: A Pretest Posttest Study. Violence and Victims, 27(6), 911-921.
- Foubert, J. D. & Masin, R. C. (2012). Effects of The Men’s Program on U.S. army soldiers’ intentions to commit and willingness to intervene to prevent rape: A pretest posttest study. Violence and Victims, 27, 911-921.
- McDonald, P. & Flood, M. (2012). Encourage. Support. Act!: Bystander approaches to sexual harassment in the workplace. Australian Human Rights Commission.
- Brosi, M. W., Foubert, J. D., Bannon, R. S., & Yandell, G. (2011). Effects of sorority members’ pornography use on bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance. The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors, 6(2), 27-35.
- Brosi, M. W., Foubert, J.D., Bannon, R.S., & Yandell, G. (2011). Effects of women’s pornography use on bystander willingness and efficacy to intervene in a sexual assault situation and rape myth acceptance. The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/ Sorority Advisors, 6(2), 26-35.
- Flood, M. (2011). Building men’s commitment to ending sexual violence against women. Feminism & Psychology, 21(2), 262-267.
- Flood, M. (2011). Involving Men in Efforts to End Violence Against Women. Men and Masculinities, 14(3), 358-377.
- Foubert, J. D. (2011). Answering the questions of rape prevention research: A response to Tharp et al. (2011). Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(16), 3393-3402.
- Foubert, J.D., Brosi, M.W., & Bannon, R. S. (2011). Pornography viewing among fraternity men: Effects on bystander intervention, rape myth acceptance and behavioral intent to commit sexual assault. Journal of Sex Addiction and Compulsivity, 18, 212-231.
- Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Foubert, J.D., Brasfield, H., Hill, B. & Shelley-Tremblay, S. (2011). The Men’s Program: Does it impact college men’s bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene? Violence Against Women, 17(6), 743-759.
- Flood, M. (2010). Where men stand: Men’s roles in ending violence against women. Sydney: White Ribbon Prevention Research Series, No. 2.
- Foubert, J. D., Godin, E. E., & Tatum, J. L. (2010). In their own words: Sophomore college men describe attitude and behavior changes resulting from a rape prevention program 2 years after their participation. Journal of interpersonal Violence 25(12), 2237-2257.
- Foubert, J. D., Tatum, J., & Godin, E. (2010). First-year male students’ perceptions of a rape prevention program seven months after their participation: Attitude and behavior changes. Journal of College Student Development, 51, 707-715.
- Foubert, J.D. & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Brasfield, H., & Hill, B. (2010). Effects of a rape awareness program on college women: Increasing bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene. Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 813-827.
- Carmody, M., Evans, S., Krough, C., Flood, M., Heenan, M., & Ovenden, G. (2009). Framing best practice: National Standards for the primary prevention of sexual assault through education, National Sexual Assault Prevention Education Project for NASASV. University of Western Sydney, Australia.
- Flood, M. & Pease, B. (2009). Factors influencing attitudes to violence against women. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 10(2), 125-142.
- Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. (2009). National survey on community attitudes to violence against women 2009. Carlton, AU: The Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.
- Flood, M. & Fergus, L. (2008). An assault on our future: The impact of violence on young people and their relationships. White Ribbon Foundation.
- Dyson, S. & Flood, M. (2007). Building cultures of respect and non-violence: A review of literature concerning adult learning and violence prevention programs with men. Australian Football League & Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.
- Flood, M. (2007). Engaging men in “women’s issues”: Inclusive approaches to gender and development. Critical Half, 1, 9-13.
- Flood, M. & Pease, B. (2007). The factors influencing community attitudes in relation to violence against women: A critical review of the literature. Victorian Health Promotion Foundation.
- Foubert, J. D. & Cremedy, B. J. (2007). Reactions of men of color to a commonly used rape prevention program: Attitude and predicted behavior changes. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 57, 137-144.
- Foubert, J. D. & Perry, B. C. (2007). Creating lasting attitude and behavior change in fraternity members and male student athletes: The qualitative impact of an empathy-based rape prevention program. Violence Against Women, 13, 70-86.
- Foubert, J. D., Newberry, J. T., & Tatum, J. L. (2007). Behavior differences seven months later: Effects of a rape prevention program on first-year men who join fraternities. NASPA Journal, 44, 728-749.
- Garner, D. G. & Foubert, J. D. (2007). Sexual assault survivors’ perceptions of campus judicial systems. Illinois Counseling Association Journal, 155, 3-18.
- Flood, M. (2006). Challenging men: Best practice in sexual violence education. Women Against Violence, 18, 26-36.
- Foubert, J. D. & Newberry, J. T. (2006). Effects of two versions of an empathy-based rape prevention program on fraternity men’s rape survivor empathy, rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 133-148.
- Foubert, J. D., Garner, D. G., & Thaxter, P. J. (2006). An exploration of fraternity culture: Implications for programs to address alcohol-related sexual assault. College Student Journal, 40, 361-373.
- Foubert, J. D., Tatum, J. L., & Donahue, G. A. (2006). Reactions of first-year men to a rape prevention program: Attitude and predicted behavior changes. NASPA Journal, 43, 578-598.
- Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. (2006). Community Two steps forward, one step back: Community attitudes to violence against women. . Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra
- Taylor, N. & Mouzos, J. (2006). Community attitudes to violence against women survey: A full technical report (Paper One). Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.
- Donovan, R. J. & Vlais, R. (2006). VicHealth review of communication components of social marketing/public education campaigns focusing on violence against women (Paper Two). Mental Health and Wellbeing Unit, Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Melbourne.
- Flood, M. & Pease, B. (2006). The factors influencing community attitudes in relation to violence against women: A critical review of the literature (Paper Three), Mental Health and Wellbeing Unit, Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Melbourne.
- Rees, S. & Pease, B. Immigrant Women’s Domestic Violence Service. (2006). Refugee settlement, safety and wellbeing: Exploring domestic and family violence in refugee communities (Paper Four), Immigrant Women’s Domestic Violence Service.
- Foubert, J. D. (2005). Anti-rape on the road: Men hit the highways to share a powerful message. About Campus, 10(5), 24-27.
- Foubert, J. D. & Cowell, E. A. (2004). Perceptions of a rape prevention program by fraternity men and male student athletes: Powerful effects and implications for changing behavior. NASPA Journal, 42, 1-20.
- Foubert, J. D. (2000). The longitudinal effects of a rape-prevention program on fraternity men’s attitudes, behavioral intent, and behavior. Journal of American College Health, 48, 159-163.
- Foubert, J. D. & LaVoy, S. L. (2000). A qualitative assessment of The Men’s Program: The impact of a rape prevention program on fraternity men. NASPA Journal, 38, 18-30.
- Foubert, J. D. & McEwen, M. K. (1998). An all-male rape-prevention peer education program: Decreasing fraternity men’s behavioral intent to rape. The Journal of College Student Development, 39(6), 548-556.
- Foubert, J. D. & Marriott, K. A. (1997). Effects of a sexual assault peer education program on men’s belief in rape myths. Sex Roles, 36(3/4), 259-268.
- Foubert, J. D. & Marriott, K. A. (1996). Overcoming men’s defensiveness toward sexual assault programs: Learning to help survivors. Journal of College Student Development, 37, 470-472.