The Ecological Model explains the occurrence of violence against women and helps identify potential prevention strategies. Some educators have developed exercises to explain this model. This model is constructed with four levels: individual, relationship, community, and society.

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Heise, L., Ellsberg, M., & Gottemoeller, M. (1999). Ending violence against women. Baltimore, MD: Population Information Program, Center for Communications Programs, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health.


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McLeroy, K. R., Steckler, A. and Bibeau, D. (Eds.) (1988). The social ecology of health promotion interventions. Health Education Quarterly, 15(4):351-377.

Some have adopted a five-level Model: Individual, Relationship, Institutional/Organizational, Community and Societal/Policy.

Application to Teen Dating Abuse Prevention

The Socio-Ecological Model has beensued to outline components of prevention programs.