Comprehensive Response


Violence against women is a significant and complicated social problem that requires a significant and comprehensive response. While the public health approach uses language such as primary, secondary and tertiary prevention, and the ecological model, the violence against women movement has historically built comprehensive responses to address violence against women including awareness, outreach and reducing risk, intervention & treatment services, promoting effective system response and prevention to to promote positive behaviors and norms.

Awareness and Outreach

The activities promote awareness of the problem of violence against women and indicate where services are available. These activities also include efforts to reduce the potential risk of becoming a victim of abuse.

  • PSAs
  • posters
  • advertisements
  • awareness–risk reduction activities
    • brochures
    • information about violence against women
    • information about services
  • media advocacy

Intervention and Treatment Services

  • crisis lines
  • shelters
  • counseling (peer, group, clinical)
  • legal services

Effective System Response

  • develop effective response by
    • legal sytems (law enforcement, prosecution, judicial)
    • health care
    • education

Prevention to Promote Positive Norms and Behaviors

These efforts are often described as primary prevention.

  • social marketing
  • leadership development
  • empowerment
  • social norms campaigns
  • school-based programs